Story of Scientific Laws – Logic behind the Magic of Nature
The magical things keeps happening all around us. These are quite fascinating to witness. There are laws and there are principles.
The discovery around us is possible because certain rules of nature are observed, experimented and scientifically established.
The laws or principles explaining the behavior of nature are constantly evolving with newer revelations, and also with our unflinching pursuits new laws or principles are being discovered and different equations are getting formulated based on our deep observations and designed correlations of empirical data.
There are so many amazing stories written in the nature. And these are written in a different set of languages. The plot in these stories deceptively appears cryptic if we don’t familiarize ourselves with these frames of laws and principles. It is the fundamental language of nature. And these are wonderful stories of nature that make us wondering are governed by certain set of natural rules.
There is the space of galaxies, the science of cosmology and we have yet not explored beyond few galaxies. There are millions and millions of them. We wouldn’t have been able to launch spacecraft into the outer space without knowing the laws of physics. There are astrophysicists. There are astronomers. There is the depth of the ocean and the core of the earth crust. There are geologists. There are anthropologist. We wouldn’t have been able to float a ship on the sea without knowing the principles of water displacement. We have traveled across the seas and oceans. There are travelers. There are explorer. There are different forms of energies and energies need to transfer between objects and place to serve a purpose. We would not have been able to transfer electricity from one place to another through conductivity power of certain element like copper wire. There are biologists. There are naturalists. There is this greatest source of energy from sun. We would not have been able to generate nuclear power through the chemical process of nuclear fission or nuclear fusion without knowing the structure of atomic model.
It is the story of logic behind the magic of nature.
It is also the work of science behind artistic display of nature.
We are governed by the grand bodies of principles and laws of natural phenomena.
The human interaction with nature is clinically dissected through such principles and laws. It is fascinating to do the experimentation and the more we do these detailed observations the more nuanced is our understanding of the fundamental behavior of the universe. The very nature of the nature. There is a bundle of the beauty and the bounty of this very wonderful world, so much to fathom and so many things to unravel. The way solid matters behaving with each other. The way a liquid matter behaves with a solid matter. There is the chemistry. There is the physics. There is mathematics. And there is an intriguing interplay between all these players. These rules of science are practically joined together to explain how part of it and why these phenomena happens and the way it happens.
Laws are legal versions of rules…
These laws are then designed and invoked to bring about an order, fairness and justice in our society. Otherwise there will be no mechanism to control disorder and disturbances that keep inflicting our society. There has to be laws to address the issues that crop up when people stay together in a community, in a society and in a country. The nation-state with its defined boundary and the set of rules…the constitution. We are all aware of the social laws and the directive principles governing our governance. We are bound to function within the prescribed periphery of such laws and anything we do outside the boundary is termed as illegal. In nature there is nothing as such called as illegality but we are impacted by nature when we cross the boundary of natural laws. And we have done it quite rampantly…
We are faced with earthquakes. We are faced with fury and storm. We are faced with the eruption of volcanoes. We are faced with flood and the deluge. We are faced with famine and the drought.
There are so many things happening around us and these different things have their own nature and they behave differently and react so to situations. There are consequences to such behavioral pattern and reactionary changes. Patterns that can be predicted and are repeated in nature are subject to varied conditions, and over a period get into the bracket of law. Reactionary changes which cannot be proved using hypothesis and empirical data continue stay out of the purview of laws, though some get closely associated with the principles.
These are laws of Conservation of Energy.
It deals with the behavior of the mass and energy…
Mass and energy are conserved. The amount of matter cannot change. Mass cannot be created or destroyed. The total mass in any chemical reaction remains the same in a closed system. We are all made up of matter and what happens to matter when subjected some form of energy, let’s say heat energy. Thermodynamics studies how energy works on system. The matter of water gets converted into gaseous form, the form changes but the number of molecules remains the same. No matter what we do, nothing can be destroyed or created. The law of conservation was discovered by Antoine Lavoisier.
These are part of Newton’s law.
It deals with behavior of the motion of objects…
Just that we manage to change one form to another. What happens to a matter when we apply force, let’s say we roll a ball. There is a motion and the ball keeps moving till an external force overpowers the power of motion. When a body of matter hits another matter, there is an opposite and equal force of reaction.
These are part of the law of Gravitational forces.
It deals with the behavior of objects having mass…
What happens when we drop a steel ball from the sky, it falls and hit the surface and bounces back couple of times. What happens when we drop a light feather from the sky, it falls and hits the surface and rest in silence. The ball will fall fast compared to the feather. But if we do the experiment in vacuum both will fall at the same speed. Isn’t it interesting? The weight then no more matters.
These are part of Kepler’s law.
This deals with the motion of planets…
The planets keep rotating around the sun and the path these planets take is elliptical in nature and the area covered in certain duration of time is same across the entire orbital path. The straight line joining the planet and the sun sweeps out equal area in equal intervals. The squares of the orbital periods of planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distance from the sun.
This is called as Archimedes principles.
It deals with the behavior of body immersed in fluid…
An object floats on the surface of water, and there is a part of the object which submerged in the water and in the process it displays certain part of water underneath. This causes an upward thrust and it is force equals to the weight of displayed water. And this is true whether we are talking of paper boat on the streams of rainwater or for that matter a cruise ship in the deep-sea. This principle is used in shipbuilding to make sure that ship floats.
These are part of Darwin’s law.
This deals with origin and evolution of species…
All organisms have emerged from a single species but today millions of different species dot our planet earth and their traits and features differs. This was possible through millions of years of evolution. During the period the species have naturally adapted to the situations and conditions thrown at them by the forces of nature. There were times where the temperature reached the freezing point and the species had to survive and there was time where the temperature touched the firing point and the species have survived. Also there is this constant fight between the prey and predator and it is the question of the survival of the fittest. There is this process of natural adaptation through the mechanism of mutation and selection.
These are part of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity governing the space-time continuum.
Take the case of light, it travels at speed no other thing can beat its speed. Travelling at a speed of 186,000 miles per second and anything traveling at that speed dilates the time and contract the space. In other words the time slows down and the space reduces.
It is the mathematical model that joins space and time into a single idea. The universe was considered to have three dimensions like left-right, up-down and backward-forward. One more dimension got added.
It formed the fourth dimension to the position of an object known as Minkowski space. It was the year 1916. Mass can be created out of energy. Mass and energy are one and the same. What is mass? It is the amount of matter in an object. Mass is not the same thing as weight. The force exerted by gravity on the object is what determines the weight of the object. The same object will weigh differently in the earth and on the moon. What is energy? It is the ability to do work. It is the energy that makes the world lively and vibrant. The sunlight that lightens up the plants and the food that provides the chemical energy to the human beings and animals to do the work.
These are part of Einstein laws.
It deals with the behavior of mass and energy…
The mass-energy equivalence comes under the Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. It was the year 1905. A small amount of mass corresponds to a large amount of energy and it was established by the famous equation of Einstein (e=mc^2). In fact the universe was born out of the lot of energy that turned into mass during the process of Big Bang. The sun is giving off energy through the process of nuclear fusion. And the fusion is of hydrogen with helium. In other words the sun is converting the mass into energy; it is losing mass at the rate of 4.2 million tons per second.
This is part of the Bernoulli’s principles.
It deals with the dynamics of fluid…
This principles describes the relationship between the pressure and the velocity of a moving fluid. Now take the case of matter in any form solid to gas, as the speed of the matter increases the pressure within the matter decreases. It is this differential pressure that plays the role of lifting the flight into the sky. The pressure above the wings is lower than below it, providing the lift from underneath the wing.
This is called as Pascal law or principle.
It deals with the behavior of fluid mechanics…
Another case when we apply pressure to a body of fluid, at rest in a closed container the pressure gets equally distributed across every part of the fluid and to the walls of the container without any loss. In other words pressure applied to an enclosed body of fluid get transmitted undiminished. This law is applied in hydraulic lift used to raise the car off the ground.
This is called as Boyle’s law.
It deals with the behavior of ideal gases…
There is a relationship between the pressure and volume of the gas. It states that temperature remaining constant, volume of a given mass of a gas varies inversely with the pressure of the gas.
This is called as Charles Law.
It is another law dealing with the behavior of ideal gases…
It describes the way gas expands when heated. The law states that the volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. These are alternatively knows as law of volumes.
This is called as Ohm’s law.
It deals with the flow of electric current…
Electricity is nothing but the movement of electrons and these creates charges. The electricity flows through a wire and the flow depends on the difference of voltage between the two points. Just like the water flow in a pipe depends on the width of the pipe which acts as the resistance to the volume of flow, the current also depends on the factor of resistance in the wire.
This is called as Bohr’s law.
It deals with the behavior of atomic structure of matter…
The elements in any matter have their properties. The elements are body of atoms. The atoms in terms comprises of proton, neutrons and electrons. It is the composition of atomic model. Though protons and neutrons reside inside the nucleus of the atom, the number of electrons stays outside in an orbit and that determines the properties of the element and the matter. This is known as the Bohr’s law.
This is called as Hooke’s law.
It deals with behavior of elasticity of material.
This law states that the extension of a spring is proportional to the tension built in stretching the spring. By doubling of the tension it results in the doubling of the amount of stretch. In other words a strain in a solid is proportional to the applied stress within the elastic limit of that solid. It is also know as the law of elasticity.
This is called as Graham’s law.
It deals with the behavior of gases.
This is law of effusion which states that the rates of diffusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their densities under similar conditions of temperature and pressure. It is also known as law of diffusion.
There are many of these laws and principles governing our nature, here it is just a short list of the long definitions:
These laws or principles in science are a mathematical description of the various natural phenomena happening around us. Natural Law is a philosophical assertion that rights are inherent by virtue of nature and endowed by nature.
Everything in nature has a purpose included that of humans.
Self-Preservation is the first law of nature i.e. everything will fight to survive. It is quite natural to think of ourselves first. On the other hand a law in science is a generalized rule to explain the behavior through a body of detailed observations in the form of mathematical statement.
This mathematical statement are based on repeated experimental observations that describes certain aspect of the Universe. These are based on empirical data and the predicted result is confined to certain set of conditions.
Nihar R Pradhan